Tanukiological Abstracts


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This is a collection of abstracts of more than 1,300 scientific papers on raccoon dogs. (see below as some examples)

The contents are grouped into the media types (i.e., scientific paper, book, thesis, conference abstract, and anonymous article), listed in alphabetical order of the first authors' names, and organized by author(s), year, title, reference source, abstract, keyword(s).

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Ikeda, H.
Development of young and parental care of raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus TEMMICK, in captivity.
J. Mammal. Japan 9: 229-236.
ABS: Studies on the growth of young and parental care of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus TEMMINCK, in captivity. Offspring weaned at 30 days old and developed their behaviour from 30 to 80 days old under parental care. Body weights offspring reached adult size at 150 days old. They lived relatively independent at this time. The male took part of pup caring up to 80 days from delivery, but the female played a greater part of it.
KEYWORD: development, growth, parental care

Ikeda, H.
Raccoon dog scent marking by scats and its significance in social behaviour.
J. Ethol. 2: 77-84.
ABS: Utilization pattern of latrines by raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, was studied on a small island in western Kyushu, Japan. Seventy-eight latrines were spread over the study areas, these were mainly formed on the flat surface in woody areas. Although the site and number of latrines were fairly stable throughout the year, distribution of the utilized latrines and number of scats per latrine were changed seasonally. Latrines were grouped into several clusters and communal utilization of latrines by several animals was observed within the cluster. Seasonal changes of utilization pattern observed in communal utilization rate and cluster formation was assumed to be caused by the changing of the social unit of raccoon dogs. Familiarization within the home range and information site to conspecific may be concluded as the function of latrines.
KEYWORD: scent marking, latrines, scats

Ikeda, H., K. Eguchi and Y. Ono
Home range utilization of a raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus, TEMMINCK in a small islet in Western Kyushu.
Jap. J. Ecol. 29: 35-48.
ABS: Pattern of habitat utilization, home range and food habits of a raccoon dog are studied in a small islet, Takashima, western Kyushu. The home range and the number of individuals in the area are established by means of a bait-marking method which is a new technique developed in this study taking notice of the peculiar behaviour of the raccoon dog to defecate its feces daily on a definite fecal pile site. The size of home range estimated by the method ranged from 1.1 to 4.3 ha (2.8 ha av.) and the total number of individuals in this islet was 8.6-16.1, 0.46-0.86 per ha in density. The individual home ranges overlapped closely to each in four seasons. The small population size and high population density in this islet are explained by the confined circumstances of habitat in the one hand and by the specific modes of life of the raccoon dog, that they can live together in a small area with cooperative utilization of the habitat on the other.
KEYWORD: habitat utilization, home range, food habits, social structure

Kauhala, K.
Growth, size, and fat reserves of the raccoon dog in Finland.
Acta Theriol. 38: 139-150.
ABS: The growth, size, and fat reserves of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were studied in Finland in 1986-90. There were no differences between the sexes in mean body size. Juveniles reached the mean adult body length at the age of 5-7 months. The weather in spring seemed to cause both annual and regional variation in the weight and fat reserves of juveniles in late autumn. Some of these differences could be seen as late as the following March. The adults had the least fat reserves in May and the most in October-November. The abundance of food, especially that of voles in early spring seemed to affect the fat reserves of adult females in the breeding season in March.
KEYWORD: growth, size, fat reserves, Finland

Kauhala, K.
Habitat use of raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in southern Finland.
Z. Saugetierkunde 61: 269-275.
ABS: Habitat use of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was studied in southern Finland during the snow-free seasons of 1990-1992 using radio tracking. Habitat selection within the study area and habitat use within the home range were examined. Raccoon dogs favoured shore areas especially during early summer. Shore areas with dense undergrowth provided food (e.g. frogs) and shelter, and raccoon dogs often escaped into water when attacked. During autumn, raccoon dogs favoured moist heaths with abundant berries, which serve as an important food source before entering winter dormancy. The habitat use of raccoon dogs is thus affected by the availability of food, shelter and suitable den sites. Two features are common to dogs in all areas: 1) they are very often found near water and 2) during autumn they are more or less dependent on fruits and berries, which affects their habitat selection.
KEYWORD: habitat use, habitat selection

Kauhala, K.
Reproductive strategies of the raccoon dog and the red fox in Finland.
Acta Theriol. 41: 51-58.
ABS: Reproductive strategies of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray 1834) and the red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) were studied in southern Finland in 1986-1995. Litter size and relative litter weight, body size, population status and ecology were compared. Although the body size is almost equal, diet rather similar and both raccoon dog and fox populations have been rather stable during the study period, the litter sizes and relative litter weights differ greatly. The mean litter size of the raccoon dog was 9.0 and that of the red fox 5.1. The mean relative litter weight was 18.3-24.0% for the raccoon dog and 10.4-12.5% for the red fox. Thus, raccoon dog females are able to invest relatively more in reproduction than the red fox. There are several features in the ecology and behaviour of these species which can explain the different strategies. First, vole cycles have a strong effect on red fox reproduction, but they have a week effect on the litter size of the raccoon dog. Second, the raccoon dog sleeps during harsh winters and females are in good condition in the breeding season regardless of the weather and food supply during the winter. The red fox is always active in winter when food availability may be low and moving in snow is energetically costly. Omnivory, the ability to accumulate large fat reserves and winter dormancy guarantee the good condition of raccoon dog female even in fluctuating environments by reducing the relative costs of reproduction. Third, raccoon dog pups are easy prey to other predators, and mortality during their first year is very high. If mortality rate before the reproductive age is high and independent of litter size, natural selection will favour  large litters. Juvenile mortality among foxes is lower, and it probably would increase in larger litters due to eg starvation.
KEYWORD: reproduction, red fox, Finland

Kauhala, K., E. Helle and K. Taskinen
Home range of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in southern Finland.
J. Zool., Lond. 231: 95-106.
ABS: Home ranges, relationships between individuals and dispersal among raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were studied in southern Finland in 1989-91. The average maximum home range, calculated by the harmonic mean method, was 9.5 km² and the core area (85% utilization) 3.4 km². There were no statistical significant annual, seasonal or sexual differences in the size of the average core area of adults, but the home ranges of juveniles in autumn were larger than those of adults. However, the maximum home ranges of adults were larger in autumn than in summer, especially those of males, which were conspicuously small in summer and large in autumn. The core areas of adjacent pairs did not usually overlap in the pup-rearing season, but in autumn some home ranges shifted and there was much more overlap. The home ranges of the male and female of a pair overlapped almost totally, and a male and a female sharing the same home range also traveled together or close to each other, thus supporting the idea that the raccoon dog is monogamous in Finland. None of the adults left the study area, but 38% of the juveniles were recovered further than 10 km from the marking place during the first autumn.
KEYWORD: home range, dispersal, Finland

Kauhala, K., M. Kaunisto, and E. Helle
Diet of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in Finland.
Z. Saugetierhunde 58: 129-136.
ABS: Studied the diet of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Finland by examining the contents of 172 stomachs mainly from August-April and 206 scats from May and June. Findings suggested that the raccoon dog is a true omnivore, with the seasonal composition and diversity of the diet varying with the availability of different food items. Small mammals, plants, and carcasses and other waste were frequently eaten during all seasons, and some birds were eaten throughout the year. Insects were a common food in summer and autumn, and frogs and lizards in late spring and early summer. The diet also included fishes, particularly in early spring and autumn. The annual variation in food composition seemed to be affected by the availability of small rodents. The raccoon dog in the predation of eggs and downy youngs of gallinaceous birds and waterfowl remains obscure.
KEYWORD: food habits, Finland

Kauhala, K., E. Helle and H. Pietila
Time allocation of male and female raccoon dogs to pup rearing at the den.
Acta Theriol. 43: 301-310.
ABS: The proportion of time that male and female raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1834) spent at the den during pup rearing was studied in Finland using radio-tracking. Results were compared with the behaviour of some other canids. Male raccoon dogs spent even more time at the den than females, especially during the day when males remained almost 80% of the time at the den, but females only about 60%. The behaviour of males and females did not differ at night. Consequently, the behaviour of males differed at various times of day and night, but that of females did not. During the 1st month after birth pups were seldom left by themselves: during day both parents were often at the den, but at night only one of them was usually at the den. That males spend more time at the den with pups than females is common behaviour in the raccoon dog and the bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis. These canids feed on small food items that are difficult to carry to the den, especially if food is scarce and widely distributed. Instead, the females forages and nurses the pups, and the male guards the litter. In species with larger food items, the male usually carry food to the den. When food items are very large they cannot be carried to the den, but males and other pack members feed from the carcase and regurgitate food at the den.
KEYWORD: pup rearing, parental care, canids, Finland

Kauhala, K., S. Viranta, M. Kishimoto, and E. Helle and I. Obata
Skull and tooth morphology of Finnish and Japanese raccoon dogs.
Ann. Zool. Fennici 35: 1-16.
ABS: The skull and tooth morphometrics of Finnish and Japanese raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides ussuriensis and N. p. viverrinus, respectively) were examined and compared. The skulls of Finnish raccoon dogs were larger overall than those of Japanese raccoon dogs (tanukis) and were also larger relative to occipital condyle breadth, i.e. body size. Almost all measurements differed among samples in relation to skull size, indicating differences in skull shape. Mandible width and jaw height were the best measurements for discriminating among populations; the mandible is both absolutly and relatively more robust and the jaws more powerful among Finnish than among Japanese raccoon dogs. Japanese raccoon dogs have a relatively longer rostrum and longer tooth rows than Finnish raccoon dogs. Although the absolute measurements of most teeth of Finnish raccoon dogs were larger than those of Japanese raccoon dogs, the relative measurements of molars in particular were larger in Japan than Finland,indicating a larger grinding surface among Japanese raccoon dogs. We suggest that viverrinus has adapted to a milder climate and less carnivorous diet than ussuriensis. The Japanese raccoon dog is smaller and, due to its less carnivorous diet, its head has become decreased in size and the jaws less powerful; howver, since its diet consists largely of invertebrates and coarse plant material, its molars have increased relative to skull size.
KEYWORD: skull, tooth, mophology, diet, Japan, Finland

Kishimoto, M.
Seasonal changes in body weight, subcutaneous fat and food intake of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in captivity.
Mammalian Science 36: 165-174.
ABS: The present study was undertaken to clarify the annual changes in body weight and subcutaneous fat of raccoon dog in captivity. Five adult raccoon dogs kept in individual cages outdoors were weighed monthly from March, 1988 to November, 1989. The thickness of subcutaneous fat layers were measured by X-ray examinations fram November, 1988 to October, 1989. The commercial diet that animals took ad libitum was weighed every other month from February to December in 1988. The raccoon dogs consumed the highest amont in Jun-Aug, the least in April, and weighed heaviest in Aug-Oct and lightest in Apr-May. The thickness of subcutaneous fat layer changed in the same way as the body weight.
KEYWORDS: sesonal change, body weight, subcutaneous fat, food intake

Korhonen, H., M. Harri and J. Asikainen
Moulting and seasonal pelage variations in the raccoon dog.
Acta Theriologica 29: 77-88.
ABS: An examination was made of the moult and seasonal pelage variations in adult and juvenile raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray 1834) from Eastern Finland. The Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) served as a reference animal. Raccoon dog pelage is composed of four types of hairs: guard hairs, long pile hairs, short pile hairs, and underfur. Whelps moult at the age of 4-5 weeks to a new summer pelage. Growth of dense winter pelage takes mainly place during September, October, and November. The dense underfur is replaced by a thinner summer one by mid-June. Timing of guard hair moult is rather individual. Total and underfur hair weights on the back and abdomen remain fairly constant during June-August, but increase as winter pelage develops. Shortest guard hair and underfur lengths are found in summer. Skin thickness is highest in summer. Total and skin weights of blue (Arctic) foxes and raccoon dogs in winter are about the same order of magnitude. Length of guard hair and underfur is shorter in the blue fox, especially on the back and tends to be lower on sides and abdomen. Considerable site-specific variations were found in different pelage parameters. Good correlations between hair length and weight and skin weight and thickness were found.
KEYWORD: hair, molting, pelage, Finland

Korhonen, H., M. Harri and J. Asikainen
Energy requirements of growing farm-raised raccoon dogs.
Acta Zool. fennica 171: 195-196.
ABS: The requirement for metabolizable energy (ME) of five young, growing raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, was determined by heat production (HP) technique and the results were compared with the amount of ME fed to the animals in a common farming practice. At the beginning of July, two months after weaning, the HP gradually increased reaching a steady adult level by the first half of August (2,000 KJ/ animal/ day). A capacity for non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), about 20% above the basal HP, was observed in weaned pups. It was totally absent in adults.
KEYWORD: energy requirement, metabolizable energy, heat production, Finland

Korhonen, H., M. Harri, and E. Hohtola
Response to cold in the blue fox and raccoon dog as evaluated by metabolism, heart rate and muscular shivering: a re-evaluation.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 82: 959-964.
ABS: Oxygen consumption (ml kg-0.75/min) in relation to ambient air temperature at or below the lower critical temperature (T1c) of the winter-furred raccoon dog (+ 10°C) and the blue fox (-6°C) is described by the equations y = 14.8-0.28x and y = 7.5-0.20x, respectively. Muscular shivering activity (integrated EMG) of both species increased below thermoneutrality parallel with increasing oxygen uptake and heart rate. Seasonal changes in measured metabolic parameters were evident for both species. The results suggest that the overall body insulation or the metabolic response to cold are not essentially worse in the raccoon dog as compared with the blue fox. It is concluded that earlier speculations of surprisingly wide thermoneutral zone and very low T1c of the Arctic fox are not evident for the blue fox.
KEYWORD: thermoregulation, metabolism, shivering, blue fox, Finland

Korhonen, H., J. Mononen, and M. Harri
Evolutionary comparisons of energy economy between Finish and Japanese raccoon dogs.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 100: 293-295.
ABS: The paper describes evolutionary differences in enegetics between the raccoon dogs originated from islands (Japan) and mainlands (eastern Asia). The Japanese raccoon dog is specialized to live in a temperate marine climate; it has a stomach of small volume, thin fur coat with low insulation, specialized diet and a poor ability to alter its body enegy reserves seasonally. The raccoon dog living in mainland is more generalized, and thus also well-adapted to survive extreme climate of northern latitudes. The results confirm the previous conclusion made from chromosomal analyses that the Japanese raccoon dog has evolved from the mainland form.
KEYWORD: evolution, enegy economy, Finland

Machida, N., K. Kiryu, K. Oh-ishi, E. Kanda, N. Izumisawa and T. Nakamura
Pathology and epidemiology of canine distemper in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides).
J. Comp. Path. 108: 383-392.
ABS: From September to December 1991, a large number of free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) died from a highly contagious disease in the vicinity of Tokyo. Eighteen seriously ill or dead animals were submitted for necropsy. The pathological findings resembled those in a masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) found infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) in the same area in late August 1991. The most striking features were pneumonia and gastroenteritis. Microscopical lesions consisted of cytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies in various organs and tissues, bronchiolointerstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative demyelinating encephalitis, lymphocytic depletion in various lymphoid tissues and catarrhal or necrotizing gastroenteritis. CDV-specific antigens, demonstrated immunohistochemically in the epithelial tissues, central nervous system and lymphoid tissues, corresponded with the presence of the eosinophilic inclusion bodies in sections of the same lesions stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Ultrastructurally, both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed clear evidence that CDV was the cause of the disease. It is possible that the marked palm civet introduced the infection into the raccoon dog population.
KEYWORD: distemper, marked palm civet

Makinen, A., M. T. Kuokkanen and M. Valtonen
A chromosome-banding study in the Finnish and the Japanese raccoon dog.
Hereditas 105: 97-106.
ABS: The nombre fondamental (NF), which is the total number of euchromatic chromosome arms in the female, is the same in the Finnish as in the Japanese raccoon dog, 66. However, the karyotype of the Finnish raccoon dog consists of 5 metacentric and 21 acrocentric autosome pairs whereas that of the Japanese raccoon dog has 13 metacentric and 5 acrocentric autosome pairs. In both, the X chromosomes are medium-sized and metacentric and the Y chromosomes small and metacentric with satellites. The number  of B chromosomes varies from 2 to 4 in the Finnish and from 2 to 5 in the Japanese raccoon dog, the number of varying within and between individuals. A comparative chromosome study using GTG-banding showed Robertsonian translocation as the main mechanism of chromosome evolution since many chromosome arms had identical banding patterns. The B chromosomes were acrocentric, CBG-positive, and late-replicating; they were larger in the Finnish than in the Japanese raccoon dog. In both, three autosome pairs and NORs in addition to the NOR in the Y chromosome. Whether hybrids can be produced between these chromosomally-different raccoon dogs is not yet known.
KEYWORD: karyotype, chromosome-banding, Finland, Japan

Sasaki, H. and M. Kawabata
Food habits of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus in a mountainous area of Japan.
J. Mammal. Soc. Japan 19: 1-8.
ABS: The food habits of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus were studied in a mountainous area of Honshu Island, Japan from November 1979 to October 1980. Examination of four hundred and fifty feces revealed that fruits and insects were the most important food items in the study area, and that the raccoon dog is an opportunistic forager which collects food from the ground. The raccoon dog's food habits are discussed in relation to its distribution.
KEYWORD: food habits, Japan

Viro, P. and H. Mikkola
Food composition of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides GRA, 1834 in Finland.
Z. Saugetierkunde 46: 20-26.
ABS: Studied the diet of the raccoon dog in central and south-eastern part of Finland in 1957-1978. The composition of the diet, based on macroscopic examination of 45 stomachs, is presented both in frequencies of occuurrence and in absolute numbers of different food items. The food mainly consisted of small mammals (in 64.3% of the stomachs), plants (60.7%) and amphibians (50.0%) during the snowless period of the year. In winter carcasses (92.9%), small mammals (50.0%) and plants (42.9%) were the most important. In Finland, the north-western corner of its present distribution area, the raccoon dog has adapted considerably to living on slaughtering wastes and carcasses especially during winter. Competition for food between the raccoon dog and the badger (Meles meles) is eased by the omnivorous character of both species and by dietary differences.
KEYWORD: food habits, Finland, badger

Wada, M. Y., Y. Lim and D. H. Wurster-Hill
Banded karyotype of a wild-caught male Korean raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis.
Genome 34: 302-306.
ABS: Chromosomes of a wild-caught male Korean raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) were analyzed by conventional stain, G-banding and C-banding techniques. The basic karyotype of this subspecies is composed of metacentric (M) and acrocentric (A) chromosomes plus a variable number of B chromosomes (2n = 54 (= 10M + 42A + XY) or XX) + Bs) and is the same as that of the Chinese and Finnish raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides). Karyotypes of the four subspecies of Nyctereutes procyonoides investigated to date conform to one of two types, the continental and the island. All animals from mainland Asia and eastern Europe that have been examined have the continental karyotype (2n = 54 (= 10M + 42A + XY or XX) + Bs), whereas all those from the four major Japanese islands that have been examined have the island type (2n = 38 (= 26M + 10A + XY or XX) + Bs). The two karyotypes have the same fundamental number (chromosomal arm number) of 66, and complete arm homology. However, the phylogenetic and taxonomic significance of the two distinct karyotypes within this monospecific genus is still unclear.
KEYWORD: karyotypes, Korea, Japan

Ward, D. G., D. H. Wuester-Hill, F. J. Ratty and Y. Strong
Comparative cytogenetics of Chinese and Japanese raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides.
Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 45: 177-186.
ABS: We investigated the relationships between subspecies of Nyctereutes procyonoides from China (2n=54+B chromosomes) and Japan (2n=38+B chromosomes). The chromosomes of Chinese and Japanese raccoon dogs were compared by means of conventional staining, G- and C-banding, and silver nitrate staining of NORs. Extensive G-banding homologies revealed karyotype evolution through chromosomal fusion. We believe the reduced diploid number in the Japanese raccoon dog was achieved by fusion of 16 acrocentrics to form eight metacentric and submetacentric elements. Ten pairs of autosomes appeared to be identical in these subspecies and were similar in the two subspecies, but differences were noted with other banding and staining techniques. B chromosomes were present in varying numbers and sizes in all animals examined, but the morphology of the B chromosomes differed in the two subspecies. It was concluded from chromosomal and paleontological evidences that the two subspecies were derived from a common mainland ancestor and that the Japanese raccoon dog is a relatively recent form.
KEYWORD: cytogenetics, Japan, China

Yachimori, S. and Y. Yamamoto
Reproductive cycle and epilation of Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus in Hachioji, Tokyo. (in Japanese with English summary)
Nat. Envir. Sci. Res. 5: 33-42.
ABS: An information survey was conducted through interview with 21 households that have been feeding Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus, and a questionnaire of 1542 students of elementary and junior high school and their parents in Hachioji. Results suggest that the reproductive cycle of N. procyonoides viverrinus in Hachioji has the following pattern. The estrous and mating season runs from about December through March peaking around February, with their delivery season running from around February through May and peaking around April. They breakup and disperse starting from August peaking around October. Further, young from the previous year were observed participating in caring for new born baby. Both the inquiry survey and questionnaire indicated the presence of individuals with epilation. Several characteristics such as hair loss all over the body, swelling and thickening of the epidermis, and frequent scratching were observed in these individuals. They were presumed to have scabies or manges. Individuals exhibiting epilation were first confirmed around August of 1988 and appeared at all the households by June of 1990. Since August of 1990, few individuals have been observed at these households nor have there been any reported observations of these animals.
KEYWORD: feeding, reproductive cycle, epilation, scabies, Tokyo, Japan

Yachimori, S., Y. Yamamoto, T. Takada, Y. Kikkawa and K. Imai
Estimation of the family relation of the raccoon dogs on the basis of resting site utilization patterns and molecular biological approach.
Mammalian Science 36: 153-164.
ABS: The family relations in a population of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) in Mt. Nyugasa were estimated under two approaches: resting site utilization patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB gene. Nine raccoon dogs were investigated from September to November (during the late period of rearing pup(s) to the early period of pup dispersal) in 1994 and 1995. Home ranges of all the study animals overlapped, however, utilization of the same resting sites was observed only among certain individuals. Three groups of related individuals (mother and female pup x 2, two male pups x1) were indicated in 1994 and one such group (parents and two female pups x 1) was indicated in 1995 based on utilization patterns of resting site. Class II haplotypes were then determined for each animal in these groups. Class II haplotype data supported the behavioral findings.
KEY WORDS: family relations, resting site utilization pattern, MHC class II DRB exon, RFLP, Japan

Yamamoto, I. and T, Hidaka
Utilization of "latrines" in the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides.
Acta Zool. Fennica 171: 241-242.
ABS: Raccoon dogs deposit their feces daily at latrines. Observations in captivity showed that they  urinated also at latrines. All the raccoon dogs living in a same cage had one latrine which was utilized communally (young included). Experiments showed that in the choice of elimination site the presence of dung pile, and not the location of the latrine was important for the animal. The animals distinguished the feces of unknown individuals from their own feces. It will be that the latrine of the raccoon dogs is the place of information exchange about conspecific individuals.
KEYWORD: latrine

Yamamoto, Y., K. Terao, T. Horiguchi, M. Morita, and S. Yachimori.
Home range and dispersal of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) in the Mt. Nyugasa, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. (in Japanese with English summary)
Nat. Envir. Sci. Res. 7: 53-61.
ABS: During 1986-93, studies on the home range and the dispersal of Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus using the radiotelemetry were performed at Nyugasa-yama (Mt. Nyugasa), Nagano Prefecture, located at the subalpine belt. The average area of home range calculated by the minimum convex polygon method was 609.5 ha. Some adult males had the larger home range in their mating season. Both males and females had the smaller home range in their delivery and suckling season. Adults moved within a short distance of less than 2 km. However, 66.7 percents of 0-year old individuals were observed to move by a relatively long distance of more than 2 km during their first autumn to the following spring.
KEYWORD: home range, dispersal, Nagano, Japan