title, reference source, abstract, keyword(s)などで構成されていいます．
EXCELファイル（1.2 MB相当）を，電子メールへの添付またはCD送付により千円で販売しています． 申し込み・問い合わせは事務局またはメール（firstname.lastname@example.org）でお願いします．
This is a collection of abstracts of more than 1,300 scientific papers
on raccoon dogs. (see below as some examples)
The contents are grouped into the media types (i.e., scientific paper,
book, thesis, conference abstract, and anonymous article), listed in alphabetical
order of the first authors' names, and organized by author(s), year, title,
reference source, abstract, keyword(s).
A worksheet example and READ ME page
コンテンツ例 content examples↓
Development of young and parental care of raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides
viverrinus TEMMICK, in captivity.
J. Mammal. Japan 9: 229-236.
ABS: Studies on the growth of young and parental care of the raccoon dog,
Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus TEMMINCK, in captivity. Offspring weaned
at 30 days old and developed their behaviour from 30 to 80 days old under
parental care. Body weights offspring reached adult size at 150 days old.
They lived relatively independent at this time. The male took part of pup
caring up to 80 days from delivery, but the female played a greater part
KEYWORD: development, growth, parental care
Raccoon dog scent marking by scats and its significance in social behaviour.
J. Ethol. 2: 77-84.
ABS: Utilization pattern of latrines by raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides,
was studied on a small island in western Kyushu, Japan. Seventy-eight latrines
were spread over the study areas, these were mainly formed on the flat
surface in woody areas. Although the site and number of latrines were fairly
stable throughout the year, distribution of the utilized latrines and number
of scats per latrine were changed seasonally. Latrines were grouped into
several clusters and communal utilization of latrines by several animals
was observed within the cluster. Seasonal changes of utilization pattern
observed in communal utilization rate and cluster formation was assumed
to be caused by the changing of the social unit of raccoon dogs. Familiarization
within the home range and information site to conspecific may be concluded
as the function of latrines.
KEYWORD: scent marking, latrines, scats
Ikeda, H., K. Eguchi and Y. Ono
Home range utilization of a raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus,
TEMMINCK in a small islet in Western Kyushu.
Jap. J. Ecol. 29: 35-48.
ABS: Pattern of habitat utilization, home range and food habits of a raccoon
dog are studied in a small islet, Takashima, western Kyushu. The home range
and the number of individuals in the area are established by means of a
bait-marking method which is a new technique developed in this study taking
notice of the peculiar behaviour of the raccoon dog to defecate its feces
daily on a definite fecal pile site. The size of home range estimated by
the method ranged from 1.1 to 4.3 ha (2.8 ha av.) and the total number
of individuals in this islet was 8.6-16.1, 0.46-0.86 per ha in density.
The individual home ranges overlapped closely to each in four seasons.
The small population size and high population density in this islet are
explained by the confined circumstances of habitat in the one hand and
by the specific modes of life of the raccoon dog, that they can live together
in a small area with cooperative utilization of the habitat on the other.
KEYWORD: habitat utilization, home range, food habits, social structure
Growth, size, and fat reserves of the raccoon dog in Finland.
Acta Theriol. 38: 139-150.
ABS: The growth, size, and fat reserves of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes
procyonoides) were studied in Finland in 1986-90. There were no differences
between the sexes in mean body size. Juveniles reached the mean adult body
length at the age of 5-7 months. The weather in spring seemed to cause
both annual and regional variation in the weight and fat reserves of juveniles
in late autumn. Some of these differences could be seen as late as the
following March. The adults had the least fat reserves in May and the most
in October-November. The abundance of food, especially that of voles in
early spring seemed to affect the fat reserves of adult females in the
breeding season in March.
KEYWORD: growth, size, fat reserves, Finland
Habitat use of raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in southern Finland.
Z. Saugetierkunde 61: 269-275.
ABS: Habitat use of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was studied
in southern Finland during the snow-free seasons of 1990-1992 using radio
tracking. Habitat selection within the study area and habitat use within
the home range were examined. Raccoon dogs favoured shore areas especially
during early summer. Shore areas with dense undergrowth provided food (e.g.
frogs) and shelter, and raccoon dogs often escaped into water when attacked.
During autumn, raccoon dogs favoured moist heaths with abundant berries,
which serve as an important food source before entering winter dormancy.
The habitat use of raccoon dogs is thus affected by the availability of
food, shelter and suitable den sites. Two features are common to dogs in
all areas: 1) they are very often found near water and 2) during autumn
they are more or less dependent on fruits and berries, which affects their
KEYWORD: habitat use, habitat selection
Reproductive strategies of the raccoon dog and the red fox in Finland.
Acta Theriol. 41: 51-58.
ABS: Reproductive strategies of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides
(Gray 1834) and the red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) were studied
in southern Finland in 1986-1995. Litter size and relative litter weight,
body size, population status and ecology were compared. Although the body
size is almost equal, diet rather similar and both raccoon dog and fox
populations have been rather stable during the study period, the litter
sizes and relative litter weights differ greatly. The mean litter size
of the raccoon dog was 9.0 and that of the red fox 5.1. The mean relative
litter weight was 18.3-24.0% for the raccoon dog and 10.4-12.5% for the
red fox. Thus, raccoon dog females are able to invest relatively more in
reproduction than the red fox. There are several features in the ecology
and behaviour of these species which can explain the different strategies.
First, vole cycles have a strong effect on red fox reproduction, but they
have a week effect on the litter size of the raccoon dog. Second, the raccoon
dog sleeps during harsh winters and females are in good condition in the
breeding season regardless of the weather and food supply during the winter.
The red fox is always active in winter when food availability may be low
and moving in snow is energetically costly. Omnivory, the ability to accumulate
large fat reserves and winter dormancy guarantee the good condition of
raccoon dog female even in fluctuating environments by reducing the relative
costs of reproduction. Third, raccoon dog pups are easy prey to other predators,
and mortality during their first year is very high. If mortality rate before
the reproductive age is high and independent of litter size, natural selection
will favour large litters. Juvenile mortality among foxes is lower, and
it probably would increase in larger litters due to eg starvation.
KEYWORD: reproduction, red fox, Finland
Kauhala, K., E. Helle and K. Taskinen
Home range of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in southern Finland.
J. Zool., Lond. 231: 95-106.
ABS: Home ranges, relationships between individuals and dispersal among
raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were studied in southern Finland
in 1989-91. The average maximum home range, calculated by the harmonic
mean method, was 9.5 km² and the core area (85% utilization) 3.4 km². There
were no statistical significant annual, seasonal or sexual differences
in the size of the average core area of adults, but the home ranges of
juveniles in autumn were larger than those of adults. However, the maximum
home ranges of adults were larger in autumn than in summer, especially
those of males, which were conspicuously small in summer and large in autumn.
The core areas of adjacent pairs did not usually overlap in the pup-rearing
season, but in autumn some home ranges shifted and there was much more
overlap. The home ranges of the male and female of a pair overlapped almost
totally, and a male and a female sharing the same home range also traveled
together or close to each other, thus supporting the idea that the raccoon
dog is monogamous in Finland. None of the adults left the study area, but
38% of the juveniles were recovered further than 10 km from the marking
place during the first autumn.
KEYWORD: home range, dispersal, Finland
Kauhala, K., M. Kaunisto, and E. Helle
Diet of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in Finland.
Z. Saugetierhunde 58: 129-136.
ABS: Studied the diet of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in
Finland by examining the contents of 172 stomachs mainly from August-April
and 206 scats from May and June. Findings suggested that the raccoon dog
is a true omnivore, with the seasonal composition and diversity of the
diet varying with the availability of different food items. Small mammals,
plants, and carcasses and other waste were frequently eaten during all
seasons, and some birds were eaten throughout the year. Insects were a
common food in summer and autumn, and frogs and lizards in late spring
and early summer. The diet also included fishes, particularly in early
spring and autumn. The annual variation in food composition seemed to be
affected by the availability of small rodents. The raccoon dog in the predation
of eggs and downy youngs of gallinaceous birds and waterfowl remains obscure.
KEYWORD: food habits, Finland
Kauhala, K., E. Helle and H. Pietila
Time allocation of male and female raccoon dogs to pup rearing at the den.
Acta Theriol. 43: 301-310.
ABS: The proportion of time that male and female raccoon dogs Nyctereutes
procyonoides (Gray, 1834) spent at the den during pup rearing was studied
in Finland using radio-tracking. Results were compared with the behaviour
of some other canids. Male raccoon dogs spent even more time at the den
than females, especially during the day when males remained almost 80%
of the time at the den, but females only about 60%. The behaviour of males
and females did not differ at night. Consequently, the behaviour of males
differed at various times of day and night, but that of females did not.
During the 1st month after birth pups were seldom left by themselves: during
day both parents were often at the den, but at night only one of them was
usually at the den. That males spend more time at the den with pups than
females is common behaviour in the raccoon dog and the bat-eared fox Otocyon
megalotis. These canids feed on small food items that are difficult to
carry to the den, especially if food is scarce and widely distributed.
Instead, the females forages and nurses the pups, and the male guards the
litter. In species with larger food items, the male usually carry food
to the den. When food items are very large they cannot be carried to the
den, but males and other pack members feed from the carcase and regurgitate
food at the den.
KEYWORD: pup rearing, parental care, canids, Finland
Kauhala, K., S. Viranta, M. Kishimoto, and E. Helle and I. Obata
Skull and tooth morphology of Finnish and Japanese raccoon dogs.
Ann. Zool. Fennici 35: 1-16.
ABS: The skull and tooth morphometrics of Finnish and Japanese raccoon
dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides ussuriensis and N. p. viverrinus, respectively)
were examined and compared. The skulls of Finnish raccoon dogs were larger
overall than those of Japanese raccoon dogs (tanukis) and were also larger
relative to occipital condyle breadth, i.e. body size. Almost all measurements
differed among samples in relation to skull size, indicating differences
in skull shape. Mandible width and jaw height were the best measurements
for discriminating among populations; the mandible is both absolutly and
relatively more robust and the jaws more powerful among Finnish than among
Japanese raccoon dogs. Japanese raccoon dogs have a relatively longer rostrum
and longer tooth rows than Finnish raccoon dogs. Although the absolute
measurements of most teeth of Finnish raccoon dogs were larger than those
of Japanese raccoon dogs, the relative measurements of molars in particular
were larger in Japan than Finland,indicating a larger grinding surface
among Japanese raccoon dogs. We suggest that viverrinus has adapted to
a milder climate and less carnivorous diet than ussuriensis. The Japanese
raccoon dog is smaller and, due to its less carnivorous diet, its head
has become decreased in size and the jaws less powerful; howver, since
its diet consists largely of invertebrates and coarse plant material, its
molars have increased relative to skull size.
KEYWORD: skull, tooth, mophology, diet, Japan, Finland
Seasonal changes in body weight, subcutaneous fat and food intake of the
raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in captivity.
Mammalian Science 36: 165-174.
ABS: The present study was undertaken to clarify the annual changes in
body weight and subcutaneous fat of raccoon dog in captivity. Five adult
raccoon dogs kept in individual cages outdoors were weighed monthly from
March, 1988 to November, 1989. The thickness of subcutaneous fat layers
were measured by X-ray examinations fram November, 1988 to October, 1989.
The commercial diet that animals took ad libitum was weighed every other
month from February to December in 1988. The raccoon dogs consumed the
highest amont in Jun-Aug, the least in April, and weighed heaviest in Aug-Oct
and lightest in Apr-May. The thickness of subcutaneous fat layer changed
in the same way as the body weight.
KEYWORDS: sesonal change, body weight, subcutaneous fat, food intake
Korhonen, H., M. Harri and J. Asikainen
Moulting and seasonal pelage variations in the raccoon dog.
Acta Theriologica 29: 77-88.
ABS: An examination was made of the moult and seasonal pelage variations
in adult and juvenile raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray 1834)
from Eastern Finland. The Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) served as a reference
animal. Raccoon dog pelage is composed of four types of hairs: guard hairs,
long pile hairs, short pile hairs, and underfur. Whelps moult at the age
of 4-5 weeks to a new summer pelage. Growth of dense winter pelage takes
mainly place during September, October, and November. The dense underfur
is replaced by a thinner summer one by mid-June. Timing of guard hair moult
is rather individual. Total and underfur hair weights on the back and abdomen
remain fairly constant during June-August, but increase as winter pelage
develops. Shortest guard hair and underfur lengths are found in summer.
Skin thickness is highest in summer. Total and skin weights of blue (Arctic)
foxes and raccoon dogs in winter are about the same order of magnitude.
Length of guard hair and underfur is shorter in the blue fox, especially
on the back and tends to be lower on sides and abdomen. Considerable site-specific
variations were found in different pelage parameters. Good correlations
between hair length and weight and skin weight and thickness were found.
KEYWORD: hair, molting, pelage, Finland
Korhonen, H., M. Harri and J. Asikainen
Energy requirements of growing farm-raised raccoon dogs.
Acta Zool. fennica 171: 195-196.
ABS: The requirement for metabolizable energy (ME) of five young, growing
raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, was determined by heat production
(HP) technique and the results were compared with the amount of ME fed
to the animals in a common farming practice. At the beginning of July,
two months after weaning, the HP gradually increased reaching a steady
adult level by the first half of August (2,000 KJ/ animal/ day). A capacity
for non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), about 20% above the basal HP, was
observed in weaned pups. It was totally absent in adults.
KEYWORD: energy requirement, metabolizable energy, heat production, Finland
Korhonen, H., M. Harri, and E. Hohtola
Response to cold in the blue fox and raccoon dog as evaluated by metabolism,
heart rate and muscular shivering: a re-evaluation.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 82: 959-964.
ABS: Oxygen consumption (ml kg-0.75/min) in relation to ambient air temperature
at or below the lower critical temperature (T1c) of the winter-furred raccoon
dog (+ 10°C) and the blue fox (-6°C) is described by the equations y =
14.8-0.28x and y = 7.5-0.20x, respectively. Muscular shivering activity
(integrated EMG) of both species increased below thermoneutrality parallel
with increasing oxygen uptake and heart rate. Seasonal changes in measured
metabolic parameters were evident for both species. The results suggest
that the overall body insulation or the metabolic response to cold are
not essentially worse in the raccoon dog as compared with the blue fox.
It is concluded that earlier speculations of surprisingly wide thermoneutral
zone and very low T1c of the Arctic fox are not evident for the blue fox.
KEYWORD: thermoregulation, metabolism, shivering, blue fox, Finland
Korhonen, H., J. Mononen, and M. Harri
Evolutionary comparisons of energy economy between Finish and Japanese
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 100: 293-295.
ABS: The paper describes evolutionary differences in enegetics between
the raccoon dogs originated from islands (Japan) and mainlands (eastern
Asia). The Japanese raccoon dog is specialized to live in a temperate marine
climate; it has a stomach of small volume, thin fur coat with low insulation,
specialized diet and a poor ability to alter its body enegy reserves seasonally.
The raccoon dog living in mainland is more generalized, and thus also well-adapted
to survive extreme climate of northern latitudes. The results confirm the
previous conclusion made from chromosomal analyses that the Japanese raccoon
dog has evolved from the mainland form.
KEYWORD: evolution, enegy economy, Finland
Machida, N., K. Kiryu, K. Oh-ishi, E. Kanda, N. Izumisawa and T. Nakamura
Pathology and epidemiology of canine distemper in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes
J. Comp. Path. 108: 383-392.
ABS: From September to December 1991, a large number of free-ranging raccoon
dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) died from a highly contagious disease in
the vicinity of Tokyo. Eighteen seriously ill or dead animals were submitted
for necropsy. The pathological findings resembled those in a masked palm
civet (Paguma larvata) found infected with canine distemper virus (CDV)
in the same area in late August 1991. The most striking features were pneumonia
and gastroenteritis. Microscopical lesions consisted of cytoplasmic and
intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies in various organs and tissues,
bronchiolointerstitial pneumonia, non-suppurative demyelinating encephalitis,
lymphocytic depletion in various lymphoid tissues and catarrhal or necrotizing
gastroenteritis. CDV-specific antigens, demonstrated immunohistochemically
in the epithelial tissues, central nervous system and lymphoid tissues,
corresponded with the presence of the eosinophilic inclusion bodies in
sections of the same lesions stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Ultrastructurally,
both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed clear
evidence that CDV was the cause of the disease. It is possible that the
marked palm civet introduced the infection into the raccoon dog population.
KEYWORD: distemper, marked palm civet
Makinen, A., M. T. Kuokkanen and M. Valtonen
A chromosome-banding study in the Finnish and the Japanese raccoon dog.
Hereditas 105: 97-106.
ABS: The nombre fondamental (NF), which is the total number of euchromatic
chromosome arms in the female, is the same in the Finnish as in the Japanese
raccoon dog, 66. However, the karyotype of the Finnish raccoon dog consists
of 5 metacentric and 21 acrocentric autosome pairs whereas that of the
Japanese raccoon dog has 13 metacentric and 5 acrocentric autosome pairs.
In both, the X chromosomes are medium-sized and metacentric and the Y chromosomes
small and metacentric with satellites. The number of B chromosomes varies
from 2 to 4 in the Finnish and from 2 to 5 in the Japanese raccoon dog,
the number of varying within and between individuals. A comparative chromosome
study using GTG-banding showed Robertsonian translocation as the main mechanism
of chromosome evolution since many chromosome arms had identical banding
patterns. The B chromosomes were acrocentric, CBG-positive, and late-replicating;
they were larger in the Finnish than in the Japanese raccoon dog. In both,
three autosome pairs and NORs in addition to the NOR in the Y chromosome.
Whether hybrids can be produced between these chromosomally-different raccoon
dogs is not yet known.
KEYWORD: karyotype, chromosome-banding, Finland, Japan
Sasaki, H. and M. Kawabata
Food habits of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus in a
mountainous area of Japan.
J. Mammal. Soc. Japan 19: 1-8.
ABS: The food habits of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus
were studied in a mountainous area of Honshu Island, Japan from November
1979 to October 1980. Examination of four hundred and fifty feces revealed
that fruits and insects were the most important food items in the study
area, and that the raccoon dog is an opportunistic forager which collects
food from the ground. The raccoon dog's food habits are discussed in relation
to its distribution.
KEYWORD: food habits, Japan
Viro, P. and H. Mikkola
Food composition of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides GRA, 1834
Z. Saugetierkunde 46: 20-26.
ABS: Studied the diet of the raccoon dog in central and south-eastern part
of Finland in 1957-1978. The composition of the diet, based on macroscopic
examination of 45 stomachs, is presented both in frequencies of occuurrence
and in absolute numbers of different food items. The food mainly consisted
of small mammals (in 64.3% of the stomachs), plants (60.7%) and amphibians
(50.0%) during the snowless period of the year. In winter carcasses (92.9%),
small mammals (50.0%) and plants (42.9%) were the most important. In Finland,
the north-western corner of its present distribution area, the raccoon
dog has adapted considerably to living on slaughtering wastes and carcasses
especially during winter. Competition for food between the raccoon dog
and the badger (Meles meles) is eased by the omnivorous character of both
species and by dietary differences.
KEYWORD: food habits, Finland, badger
Wada, M. Y., Y. Lim and D. H. Wurster-Hill
Banded karyotype of a wild-caught male Korean raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides
Genome 34: 302-306.
ABS: Chromosomes of a wild-caught male Korean raccoon dog (Nyctereutes
procyonoides koreensis) were analyzed by conventional stain, G-banding
and C-banding techniques. The basic karyotype of this subspecies is composed
of metacentric (M) and acrocentric (A) chromosomes plus a variable number
of B chromosomes (2n = 54 (= 10M + 42A + XY) or XX) + Bs) and is the same
as that of the Chinese and Finnish raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides
procyonoides). Karyotypes of the four subspecies of Nyctereutes procyonoides
investigated to date conform to one of two types, the continental and the
island. All animals from mainland Asia and eastern Europe that have been
examined have the continental karyotype (2n = 54 (= 10M + 42A + XY or XX)
+ Bs), whereas all those from the four major Japanese islands that have
been examined have the island type (2n = 38 (= 26M + 10A + XY or XX) +
Bs). The two karyotypes have the same fundamental number (chromosomal arm
number) of 66, and complete arm homology. However, the phylogenetic and
taxonomic significance of the two distinct karyotypes within this monospecific
genus is still unclear.
KEYWORD: karyotypes, Korea, Japan
Ward, D. G., D. H. Wuester-Hill, F. J. Ratty and Y. Strong
Comparative cytogenetics of Chinese and Japanese raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes
Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 45: 177-186.
ABS: We investigated the relationships between subspecies of Nyctereutes
procyonoides from China (2n=54+B chromosomes) and Japan (2n=38+B chromosomes).
The chromosomes of Chinese and Japanese raccoon dogs were compared by means
of conventional staining, G- and C-banding, and silver nitrate staining
of NORs. Extensive G-banding homologies revealed karyotype evolution through
chromosomal fusion. We believe the reduced diploid number in the Japanese
raccoon dog was achieved by fusion of 16 acrocentrics to form eight metacentric
and submetacentric elements. Ten pairs of autosomes appeared to be identical
in these subspecies and were similar in the two subspecies, but differences
were noted with other banding and staining techniques. B chromosomes were
present in varying numbers and sizes in all animals examined, but the morphology
of the B chromosomes differed in the two subspecies. It was concluded from
chromosomal and paleontological evidences that the two subspecies were
derived from a common mainland ancestor and that the Japanese raccoon dog
is a relatively recent form.
KEYWORD: cytogenetics, Japan, China
Yachimori, S. and Y. Yamamoto
Reproductive cycle and epilation of Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus
in Hachioji, Tokyo. (in Japanese with English summary)
Nat. Envir. Sci. Res. 5: 33-42.
ABS: An information survey was conducted through interview with 21 households
that have been feeding Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus, and a questionnaire
of 1542 students of elementary and junior high school and their parents
in Hachioji. Results suggest that the reproductive cycle of N. procyonoides
viverrinus in Hachioji has the following pattern. The estrous and mating
season runs from about December through March peaking around February,
with their delivery season running from around February through May and
peaking around April. They breakup and disperse starting from August peaking
around October. Further, young from the previous year were observed participating
in caring for new born baby. Both the inquiry survey and questionnaire
indicated the presence of individuals with epilation. Several characteristics
such as hair loss all over the body, swelling and thickening of the epidermis,
and frequent scratching were observed in these individuals. They were presumed
to have scabies or manges. Individuals exhibiting epilation were first
confirmed around August of 1988 and appeared at all the households by June
of 1990. Since August of 1990, few individuals have been observed at these
households nor have there been any reported observations of these animals.
KEYWORD: feeding, reproductive cycle, epilation, scabies, Tokyo, Japan
Yachimori, S., Y. Yamamoto, T. Takada, Y. Kikkawa and K. Imai
Estimation of the family relation of the raccoon dogs on the basis of resting
site utilization patterns and molecular biological approach.
Mammalian Science 36: 153-164.
ABS: The family relations in a population of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes
procyonoides viverrinus) in Mt. Nyugasa were estimated under two approaches:
resting site utilization patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphisms
(RFLP) analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II
DRB gene. Nine raccoon dogs were investigated from September to November
(during the late period of rearing pup(s) to the early period of pup dispersal)
in 1994 and 1995. Home ranges of all the study animals overlapped, however,
utilization of the same resting sites was observed only among certain individuals.
Three groups of related individuals (mother and female pup x 2, two male
pups x1) were indicated in 1994 and one such group (parents and two female
pups x 1) was indicated in 1995 based on utilization patterns of resting
site. Class II haplotypes were then determined for each animal in these
groups. Class II haplotype data supported the behavioral findings.
KEY WORDS: family relations, resting site utilization pattern, MHC class
II DRB exon, RFLP, Japan
Yamamoto, I. and T, Hidaka
Utilization of "latrines" in the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides.
Acta Zool. Fennica 171: 241-242.
ABS: Raccoon dogs deposit their feces daily at latrines. Observations in
captivity showed that they urinated also at latrines. All the raccoon
dogs living in a same cage had one latrine which was utilized communally
(young included). Experiments showed that in the choice of elimination
site the presence of dung pile, and not the location of the latrine was
important for the animal. The animals distinguished the feces of unknown
individuals from their own feces. It will be that the latrine of the raccoon
dogs is the place of information exchange about conspecific individuals.
Yamamoto, Y., K. Terao, T. Horiguchi, M. Morita, and S. Yachimori.
Home range and dispersal of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus)
in the Mt. Nyugasa, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. (in Japanese with English summary)
Nat. Envir. Sci. Res. 7: 53-61.
ABS: During 1986-93, studies on the home range and the dispersal of Nyctereutes
procyonoides viverrinus using the radiotelemetry were performed at Nyugasa-yama
(Mt. Nyugasa), Nagano Prefecture, located at the subalpine belt. The average
area of home range calculated by the minimum convex polygon method was
609.5 ha. Some adult males had the larger home range in their mating season.
Both males and females had the smaller home range in their delivery and
suckling season. Adults moved within a short distance of less than 2 km.
However, 66.7 percents of 0-year old individuals were observed to move
by a relatively long distance of more than 2 km during their first autumn
to the following spring.
KEYWORD: home range, dispersal, Nagano, Japan